Festivals in Nepal

"Nepal's Vibrant Festivals: Where Tradition Unites Diversity."

Festivals in Nepal


Dashain, also known as Vijaya Dashami, is Nepal's most significant and widely celebrated festival, particularly among the Hindu community. This festival typically occurs in the lunar month of Ashwin (September-October) and lasts for 15 days. Dashain holds immense importance in the hearts and lives of Nepali people and is a time for family gatherings, religious ceremonies, and cultural celebrations.

Importance of Dashain:

How Dashain is Celebrated:

  1. Cleaning and Preparation: In the weeks leading up to Dashain, families clean and decorate their homes. This ritual, known as "Dashain Aunsi," involves purifying the home and making it welcoming for the goddess Durga, who is believed to have visited during this time.
  2. Offerings and Prayers: On the first day of Dashain, known as Ghatasthapana, families establish a sacred vessel filled with water and barley seeds called "Jamara." This vessel represents the goddess Durga. Over the following days, they perform daily rituals, light oil lamps, and offer prayers to the goddess.
  3. Tikka and Jamara: Families gather for the main celebration on the 10th day of Dashain, known as Vijaya Dashami. Elders apply tika (a mixture of yogurt, rice, and vermillion) on the foreheads of younger family members and offer Jamara. This is a symbol of blessings, protection, and good fortune.
  4. Animal Sacrifices: While the tradition is becoming less common in urban areas, some families in rural regions still perform animal sacrifices, usually goats, buffaloes, or chickens, as an offering to the goddess Durga. The meat is then distributed among family members and shared with those in need.
  5. Family Reunions: Dashain is a time for family reunions. People from various parts of Nepal and even abroad return to their hometowns to celebrate with their loved ones. It strengthens family bonds and fosters a sense of togetherness.
  6. Cultural Performances: Dashain is also marked by cultural performances, including traditional dances, songs, and dramas. In Kathmandu and other cities, you can witness various processions, including the Kumari Jatra, where the living goddess Kumari is paraded through the streets.
  7. Fairs and Games: Many towns and cities set up fairs with various games and rides during Dashain. This provides entertainment for people of all ages.
  8. Giving and Receiving Gifts: Exchanging gifts and blessings is common during Dashain. Elders bless the younger generation with tika and Jamara; they receive gifts and tokens of respect.


Tihar, also known as Deepawali or the Festival of Lights, is one of Nepal's most important and widely celebrated festivals. This Hindu festival typically spans five days and falls in October or November, following Dashain, another major Nepali festival. Tihar is a time when people honor various animals, gods, and goddesses through rituals, decorations, and cultural festivities.

The Five Days of Tihar:

Kag Tihar (Day 1): On the first day of Tihar, crows are revered as messengers of Yama, the god of death. People offer food to crows to seek protection and blessings for their homes.

Kukur Tihar (Day 2): The second day is dedicated to dogs, who are considered loyal and revered animals in Hinduism. Dogs are adorned with garlands, tika (vermilion), and offered delicious meals to acknowledge their companionship and loyalty.

Gai Tihar and Laxmi Puja (Day 3): The third day is one of the most significant days of Tihar. Cows are worshipped as a symbol of wealth and prosperity, and people offer them special treats. In the evening, the goddess of wealth, Laxmi, is honored with lamps and offerings. Homes and public spaces are beautifully decorated with oil lamps, candles, and colorful rangoli designs to welcome Laxmi's blessings.

Goru Tihar and Govardhan Puja (Day 4): Cows and oxen are again revered on this day, and farmers perform rituals to express their gratitude for these animals, which play a vital role in their livelihood. The Govardhan Puja is also observed, symbolizing Lord Krishna's lifting of Govardhan Hill to protect villagers from a deluge. Small hills of cow dung are made to represent Govardhan Hill, and worship is performed.

Bhai Tika (Day 5): The final day of Tihar is dedicated to the bond between brothers and sisters. Sisters perform a special ritual to bless their brothers, applying tika on their foreheads and offering them sweets and garlands. In return, brothers give gifts to their sisters and promise to protect and care for them.

Other Celebrations:

Throughout Tihar, various cultural performances, songs, dances, and processions take place in different parts of Nepal. In Kathmandu and other cities, you can witness traditional dances and events featuring the Kumari, the living goddess of Kathmandu.

Tihar is a time of joy, togetherness, and the celebration of the natural world, emphasizing the harmonious relationship between humans and animals. It also promotes gratitude, respect, and the spirit of giving and receiving blessings among family and friends. The beautifully lit homes, colorful decorations, and festive atmosphere make Tihar a visually stunning and spiritually uplifting festival in Nepal.

Tiji Festival

The Tiji Festival, also spelled "Tenchi" or "Teeji," is a vibrant and culturally significant annual festival celebrated in the Lo Manthang region of Upper Mustang, Nepal. This Tibetan Buddhist festival is a three-day event that usually takes place in May and is known for its elaborate rituals, masked dances, and colorful pageantry. Tiji Festival holds both religious and cultural significance for the people of Upper Mustang.

Key Aspects of the Tiji Festival:

Mythological Origins: The Tiji Festival is based on the mythological story of Lord Dorje Jono (also known as Vajrakila) and his battle against the demon Ma Tam Ru Ta. According to legend, Dorje Jono, a deity symbolizing compassion, overcame the demon and thus saved the kingdom from destruction. The festival reenacts this story.

Religious Significance: Tiji is a religious festival celebrated by the local Tibetan Buddhist community. It serves as a time for prayers, offerings, and meditation, and it is believed to purify the area of negative influences and obstacles.

Masked Dances: The Tiji Festival is renowned for its colorful and elaborate masked dances performed by monks. These dances represent various deities, demons, and mythological characters. The dances are not only a form of artistic expression but also a way to convey Buddhist teachings and stories.

Thangka Unveiling: On the first day of the festival, a large thangka (a religious painting) depicting Dorje Jono is unveiled in the central courtyard of the Lo Manthang monastery. The unveiling is a momentous occasion and marks the official beginning of the festival.

Fire Rituals: Fire rituals are an essential part of Tiji. Monks perform fire pujas (ceremonial offerings) to purify the area and protect it from harm.

Costumes and Attire: Participants, both monks and laypeople, wear traditional Tibetan attire, including colorful robes and ornate jewelry. Elaborate masks and costumes are worn during the masked dances.

Community Involvement: The Tiji Festival brings the community together, fostering a sense of unity and cultural pride. It is a time for family and friends to come together and celebrate their shared heritage.

Tourism: In recent years, the Tiji Festival has gained attention from tourists and travelers interested in experiencing the unique culture and traditions of Upper Mustang. Visitors are often welcome to witness the festival's rituals and celebrations.

Conservation: Upper Mustang is a restricted area, and permits are required for both tourists and trekkers. This has helped preserve the region's cultural and environmental integrity.

The Tiji Festival is not only a celebration of myth and religion but also a testament to the rich cultural heritage of the Tibetan Buddhist community in Upper Mustang. It provides an opportunity for locals to express their devotion, maintain their traditions, and share their culture with the world. The festival's colorful and theatrical performances make it a visually stunning and culturally immersive experience for both participants and observers.


Holi, often referred to as the "Festival of Colors," is one of the most vibrant and joyous Hindu festivals celebrated in India and other parts of the world. While it's not exclusive to Nepal, it is also enthusiastically observed in various regions of Nepal, especially in the Terai region, where there is a significant Hindu population. Holi typically falls in March and marks the arrival of spring, symbolizing the victory of good over evil and the blossoming of love and unity.

Key Aspects of the Holi Festival:

Colorful Celebrations: The hallmark of Holi is the playful and colorful celebrations. People of all ages come together to play with vibrant, powdered pigments and watercolors. They throw these colors at each other, creating a lively and colorful atmosphere. It's a time when social norms are temporarily relaxed, and people celebrate with a sense of freedom and equality.

Bonfires (Holika Dahan): The festivities often begin with the lighting of bonfires on the night before Holi. This ritual symbolizes the victory of good over evil and commemorates the story of Prahlada, a young devotee of Lord Vishnu, who was saved from a fire by divine intervention while his evil aunt Holika burned. People gather around the bonfires, sing songs, and perform rituals.

Traditional Sweets: Special Holi delicacies are prepared and shared during the festival. "Gujiya," a sweet dumpling filled with khoya (milk solids), nuts, and sugar, is a popular treat. Thandai, a chilled drink infused with spices and herbs, including bhang (cannabis), is also consumed.

Music and Dance: Traditional folk songs and music fill the air during Holi celebrations. People dance to the beats of drums (dholak) and sing Holi songs (Holi geet). Dance performances, particularly the energetic and synchronized Ras Lila dance, are common during this festival.

Community and Social Harmony: Holi transcends social and cultural boundaries. It is a festival that brings people together, fostering a sense of unity and inclusiveness. People play Holi with friends, family, and even strangers, breaking down barriers and promoting goodwill.

Water Balloons and Water Guns: Along with powdered colors, water balloons (Pichkaris) and water guns are used to drench each other with colored water. This adds an element of excitement and fun to the celebration.

Local Variations: While the basic spirit of Holi remains the same, there may be variations in how it is celebrated in different regions of Nepal. For example, Holi is often celebrated with greater fervor in the Terai region, and water is used more liberally due to the warmer climate.

It's important to note that while Holi is a joyful and inclusive festival, it should be celebrated with respect for others' boundaries and consent. Some people may choose not to participate in the color-throwing aspect of the celebration, and their preferences should be respected.

Holi is a time of exuberance, color, and merriment, symbolizing the victory of love, light, and spring over darkness and winter. It is a cultural experience that is both visually stunning and spiritually uplifting.

Buddha Jayanti

Buddha Jayanti, also known as Buddha Purnima, is a significant Buddhist festival celebrated to commemorate the birth, enlightenment, and death (nirvana) of Siddhartha Gautama, who later became Gautama Buddha. This festival typically falls on the full moon day in April or May, depending on the lunar calendar. It is a day of great importance for Buddhists in Nepal and around the world, as it marks the life and teachings of Lord Buddha.

Key Aspects of Buddha Jayanti Festival:

Observing Sila (Virtue): On Buddha Jayanti, devotees gather at Buddhist monasteries and temples to observe Sila, which involves taking vows of morality and virtuous conduct. Buddhists refrain from killing, lying, stealing, sexual misconduct, and the consumption of intoxicants on this day.

Bodh Gaya Pilgrimage: Many Buddhists consider Bodh Gaya in India, where Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, to be the most sacred site associated with Buddha's life. Pilgrimages to Bodh Gaya are common during Buddha Jayanti, with devotees meditating and paying their respects at the Mahabodhi Temple.

Offerings and Prayer Flags: Devotees offer prayers, flowers, incense, and candles at Buddhist stupas, temples, and monasteries. The surroundings are decorated with colorful prayer flags, and the sounds of chanting and prayer ceremonies fill the air.

Circumambulation: Devotees often circumambulate stupas (such as the Boudhanath Stupa in Kathmandu) and other sacred sites, walking clockwise while chanting prayers and spinning prayer wheels.

Teachings and Dharma Talks: On Buddha Jayanti, Buddhist monks and scholars often give teachings and dharma talks, sharing the wisdom and teachings of Buddha. This is an opportunity for the community to learn and reflect on Buddhist principles.

Acts of Kindness: Many Buddhists take the opportunity to perform acts of kindness and charity on Buddha Jayanti. They may make donations to the needy, feed the hungry, or engage in other acts of compassion.

Bathing Buddha Statues: Devotees may pour water over Buddha statues, symbolizing the purification of the body, speech, and mind and the washing away of negativities.

Meditation and Mindfulness: Buddhists often engage in meditation and mindfulness practices on this day, following in the footsteps of Buddha, who achieved enlightenment through deep meditation.

Cultural Celebrations: In Nepal, as well as in regions with a significant Buddhist population, cultural celebrations and processions may take place. These events showcase traditional dances, music, and vibrant parades to honor Buddha's life and teachings.

Buddha Jayanti is not only a religious observance but also a time for Buddhists to reflect on the profound teachings of Gautama Buddha, which emphasize the path to enlightenment, compassion, and the alleviation of suffering. It is a day of deep spiritual significance and a reminder of the enduring impact of Buddha's wisdom on millions of lives worldwide.

Indra Jatra

Indra Jatra is an important traditional Newar festival celebrated in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, particularly in the city of Kathmandu. This eight-day festival usually takes place in September, with the exact dates determined by the lunar calendar. Indra Jatra is a vibrant and culturally rich festival that combines religious, cultural, and historical elements.

Key Aspects of the Indra Jatra Festival:

Kumari Jatra: The festival begins with Kumari Jatra, a procession featuring the living goddess Kumari, who is a young girl chosen from the Newar community to represent the goddess Taleju. Kumari is carried in a palanquin and paraded through the streets of Kathmandu Durbar Square. The Kumari observes the festival from her chariot and grants blessings to the spectators.

Yosin: During Indra Jatra, people erect a tall ceremonial pole called "Yosin" or "Linga," which symbolizes Lord Indra's staff. The pole is adorned with various offerings, and it is believed to bring good fortune and ward off evil spirits. On the last day of the festival, the Yosin is lowered, marking the end of the festivities.

Processions and Cultural Performances: Throughout the festival, various processions, dances, and cultural performances take place in Kathmandu Durbar Square. These include traditional dances like Lakhe, Majipa Lakhe, and Sawa Bhaku, as well as religious rituals performed by priests and community members.

Offerings and Puja: Devotees visit temples and shrines during Indra Jatra to offer prayers, flowers, incense, and food to deities, seeking their blessings and protection. One of the main rituals involves offering rice cakes known as "Yosin" to the goddess Taleju.

Masked Dances: Lakhe and Majipa Lakhe are prominent masked dances performed during Indra Jatra. Dancers wearing colorful and elaborate costumes and masks entertain the crowds with their performances, which often depict traditional stories and myths.

Public Gatherings: The festival draws large crowds to Kathmandu Durbar Square, where people gather to watch the processions, dances, and other cultural activities. It's a time for the community to come together and celebrate their cultural heritage.

Historical and Religious Significance: Indra Jatra is believed to have been established by King Gunakamadeva in the 17th century as a way to honor Lord Indra, the god of rain, and to express gratitude for a successful harvest. It also holds significance as a time to pay homage to the goddess Taleju.

Harmony and Unity: Indra Jatra is a festival that brings together people from different backgrounds and communities in Kathmandu Valley, fostering a sense of unity and cultural pride.

Indra Jatra is not only a cultural spectacle but also a time for religious devotion and reflection. It celebrates the rich Newar culture and heritage while honoring the deities and historical figures that are integral to the Kathmandu Valley's history and mythology. The festival's lively and colorful atmosphere makes it a unique and memorable experience for both locals and visitors.

Maghe Sankranti

Maghe Sankranti, also known simply as Maghi, is a traditional Hindu festival celebrated in Nepal and the Indian state of West Bengal. It marks the winter solstice and the gradual increase in the length of daylight hours. Maghe Sankranti typically falls on the 14th of January in the Gregorian calendar and is one of the most significant festivals in Nepal, especially among the Newar community and the Tharu community in the Terai region.

Key Aspects of Maghe Sankranti Festival:

Holy Bath: One of the central rituals of Maghe Sankranti is taking a holy dip in rivers and sacred water bodies. Devotees believe that this act purifies their body and soul, washing away sins, and bringing good fortune. The confluence of the rivers Gandaki, Kaligandaki, and Trishuli is especially popular for this purpose.

Makar Sankranti: In other parts of India, particularly in the southern states, Makar Sankranti is celebrated on the same day with different names. It marks the transition of the sun into the zodiac sign of Capricorn (Makara) and is considered highly auspicious.

Sesame Seeds and Molasses: Traditional foods like sesame seeds and molasses are consumed during Maghe Sankranti. In Nepal, a dish called "Til ko Laddu" (sesame seed sweet balls) is prepared and shared among family members and neighbors. Eating these foods is believed to provide warmth and energy during the cold winter months.

Family Gatherings: Families come together to celebrate Maghe Sankranti. Special foods are prepared, and relatives and friends exchange visits and gifts.

Bonfires: In some regions, particularly in the Terai and the Tharu communities, people light bonfires to keep warm during the chilly nights of winter. These bonfires also serve as a symbol of purification and the dispelling of darkness.

Cattle Worship: In rural areas, especially among the Tharu community, cattle are honored during Maghe Sankranti. They are given special care, decorations, and offerings as a sign of gratitude for their role in agriculture and daily life.

Religious Observances: Devotees visit temples, offer prayers to Lord Vishnu, and seek blessings for prosperity and well-being during Maghe Sankranti.

Maghe Sankranti is a festival that celebrates the changing of seasons and the transition from winter to spring. It holds cultural, religious, and agricultural significance and is observed with great enthusiasm by people of all ages. The festival brings communities together, reinforces cultural bonds, and is a time for reflection, gratitude, and renewal.